Khoshal Khan Khattak
(1613-89)
 
 

A famous Afghan warrior, poet, and tribal chief of the Khatak tribe who called on the Afghans to fight the Moghuls then occupying their land. He admonished Afghans to forsake their anarchistic tendencies and unite to regain the strength and glory they once possessed. But he was pessimistic, saying "The day the Pashtuns unite, old Khushhal will arise from the grave." Khushal Khan was born near Peshawar, the son of Shahbaz Khan, a chief of the Khatak tribe. By appointment of the Moghul emperor, Shah Jehan, Khushhal succeeded his father in 1641, but Aurangzeb, Shah Jehan's successor, kept him a prisoner in the Gwaliar fortress in Delhi. After Khushhal was permitted to return to Peshawar he incited the Pashtuns to rebel. His grave carries the inscription: "I have taken up the sword to defend the pride of the Afghan, I am Khushhal Khatak, the honorable man of the age." The Khatak tribe of Khushhal Khan now lives in the areas of Kohat, Peshawar, and Mardan.


Seminar on the occasion of the four hundredth birthday of Khoshal Khan Khattak

 

The afghans living in the Federal Republic of Germany celebrate the four hundredth birthday of her philosopher, poet, writer, thinker and Wiederstandskämpfers Khoschal Khan Khattak in the context of a scientific seminar on June 23rd and 24th, 2001. The programme passes out position and Afghan specialities from a two-day scientific seminar, a culture event with music, beech. Afghan and European scientists are invited.

Paschto is the national and official language of Afghanistan. Unless in Afghanistan, paschtossprachige people live in the free tribe areas, Paschtunkhula, Pakistan, cashmere and India. Foreseen by this lives millions doublets tuning in India, Bangladesh and the Pakistani provinces Pandschab and is, which can speak no more Paschto. After new statistics more than 40 million people who speak Paschto live in different parts of the world.

Paschto is an ancient, northeastern Indo-European language, which has deep relationship with the ancient Indo-European language Avesta after opinion of the European scholars. Under today's languages she is like the Pamiri languages and a Caucasian language name Ossetisch.

Paschto has a rich literature handed down verbally with which no central and south Asian language can compete. This one verbally is diversified far and versatility tradierte literature of the doublets tone language both in lyric poetry and in prose. The national and warlike events have found her form in this literature.

Paschto is in the possession of literature deposited more richly in writing besides the verbal tradition. The first poet of the doublets tone language turned known is a local ruler named Amir Koror. He has died 1268 years ago. Paschtos literature is known in the written form since the 8th century.

Khoschal Khan Khattak is in the approximately 1300-year history of the written Paschtos literature as a very famous poet, writer, thinker and opposition fighter known, famous and popular. Moon calendar is his 400-year birthday Gemäss for this this year. The culture organizations taking part here celebrate his 400-year birthday in the context of a cultural feast and a scientific seminar today on June 23rd and 24th, 2001.

Khoschal Khan Khattak has written poems (Persian) on Paschto and Farsi. However, the main quota of his literature is on Paschto. His poems are very far diversified thematically. The renowned British Orientalist Captain H.G. Raverty (Raworty) thinks that Khoschal Khan Khattak is very close to the western poets and similar due to the contents and the topic of his art of poetry, literature and documents.

Khoschal Khan Khattak has discussed different aspects of the life in his literature. He intends to take the positive and negative sides of his people with all clarity and without a sheet in front of the mouth shown. He knew psychology of his people and knew how to praise and to rebuke skilfully. He has aimed like a society critic on the Außdärung and sensitization of the people. He has already advertised education and education of the women and also developed a concept for this 400 years ago. His concept contains the physical, intellectual, spiritual and of character forming of the children and youths but also the adults by adult formation. The philosopher Khoschal Khan Khatak has the education the training taken to the consideration like the inner operation in this trained like the result of the educator activity according to the activity. Of his concept which rather is as a concept so that one can speak about his philosophy is out watch, that, on young people, a scheduled and aim full action is important to demand intellectually, moral and physical and train to responsibility conscious and strong-minded personalities her with all her abilities and strengths. Khoschal Khan Khattak hasn't seen the individual education and the social education as a contrast but was of the opinion that all individual education happens in the social room and all social education focuses on the single personality. Conditions of fertile education activity belong the favourable ambient environment to one in his opinion educationally too.

It here guide of an inner form is this a forming and which in the pupil, has Khoschal Khan Khattak spoken about the education provided that.

The famous Middle Eastern writer and poet Iqbal Lahore regarded him as a soul doctor of his nation and experts in the secrets of his people.

Khoschal Khan Khattak is the first Afghan mentor who presents his theories for the unity of the afghan, resistance against the foreign parts and the creation of a nation-state. He has explained the manifesto of such a state in his very famous work Dastarnameh. This work has large social, historical and philosophical trains. He has many works written which estimate European Orient listen at 250 but, till now, all his works haven't appeared yet. Gems of the national, political, social and philosophical meaning is unprecedented works the discovered and being with us in the history of the Paschtos literature. His anthology has 40.000 verses. In his works ideas, which are comparable with the works of western scholars, exist particularly in the range education and they are education identically. The Afghan literature scientist Mohammad Siddiq Rohi has compared some of his works with the works of western writers and to this result has come that some education theories of Khoschal Khattak with a John Locke and Johann Comenius agree. A critical poet is Khoschal Khan in his collections and also in two books, named Feraqnameh and Swatnameh many social, literary and political examples are mentioned. He criticizes the deeds of the Indian court with a large fate with his Mogulherrschern.

Apart from the fact that he was a scholar, thinker, philosopher and boisterous poet he was a prince and leaders of his tribe simultaneously. His forefathers were since the 16th century officers of the Mogul court and checked the gate to India. After the death of his father Shahbaz Khan he became the leader of his tribe and an officer of the Mogulhofs. The Mogulherrscher shah Jahan appreciated his principality and sent to him of Delhi from an edict as a confirmation. It has to be mentioned that the eastern part of Afghanistan’s to Kabul under the influence of the Mogul Kaiser was and was called province Kabul between the 16. And 17. Century. After the death shah of Jahans in the time of his son Aurangzebs tensions appeared to the Indian court. Aurangzeb has arrested Khoschal Khan Khattak with a pretext in Peshawar and sent him as a prisoner to Delhi. There he has as a prisoner or later and-Delhi-spent under detention in the mountains prison Antabur and then in Agra five years of his life at first. He under influencing control of his friends was freed in the court and returned to his native country. In the time of his captivity has in his think a deep transformation taken place?

When he returned, he has dissociated himself from the court slowly and started with his resistance later. He has taken contact to other Paschtunischen tribes and with support of his people he has kindled a systematic resistance to the Mogul Kaiser. This resistance has led to the anxiety in the power centre of the Mogul. On the basis of his has travelled Aurangzeb up to the place Hassan49;Abdal, the historic border of Afghanistan, and has required a whole year for the dismissal of the resistance of Khoschal Khan Khattak and his/its Nfitstreiter Emal Khan Momand and Darya Khan Afridi, with which he/it came back unsuccessfully. Despite large military efforts he didn't manage to overcome the Afghan resistance. He used underhanded political tricks and briberies so to stir Usustrauen up in the rows of the Widerstandkämpfer. He has this is caved in under the guide of Khoschal Khan Khattak national rebellion as a sequence of this one, even the sons brought Khoschal Khans against him.

Khoschal Khans of last years of life were very painful, because of the opposition to the Mogulhof he has gone to the area of the Aftidistamms and has died there.

The resistance of Khoschal Khan Khattak is an important part of the national and political resistance of the afghans. The opinions and ideas of Khoschal Khan Khattak form a new stage in the ideological and intellectual development of the Afghans. What he has done " for his language and his people. Is unprecedented in the cultural development of the Afghans. His theories and thesis correspond to those of many of large thinkers of the world and he can be considered an international personality so. He also has written Persian and Hindi and written books on other important languages e.g.. He could also Arabian and has translated from Arabic and Persian on Paschto. His translations are very liquid and this understandably shows that he mastered these two languages well. The Norwegian Orientalist professor Morgenstern said that the fantasies formed by Khoschal Khan Khattak in the poems and ideas are so profound and high that it isn't some of eastern languages to find her in the treasures so.

Western scholars regard Khoschal Khan Khattak as a national poet of Afghanistan.

The re-stand and fight of Khoschal Khan Khattak is an important capital of the Afghan history. His thoughts form the basis of the political and literary movements in Afghanistan.

 


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